# Attributes in Clang¶

## Function Attributes¶

### interrupt¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Clang supports the GNU style __attribute__((interrupt("TYPE"))) attribute on ARM targets. This attribute may be attached to a function definition and instructs the backend to generate appropriate function entry/exit code so that it can be used directly as an interrupt service routine.

The parameter passed to the interrupt attribute is optional, but if provided it must be a string literal with one of the following values: “IRQ”, “FIQ”, “SWI”, “ABORT”, “UNDEF”.

The semantics are as follows:

• If the function is AAPCS, Clang instructs the backend to realign the stack to 8 bytes on entry. This is a general requirement of the AAPCS at public interfaces, but may not hold when an exception is taken. Doing this allows other AAPCS functions to be called.

• If the CPU is M-class this is all that needs to be done since the architecture itself is designed in such a way that functions obeying the normal AAPCS ABI constraints are valid exception handlers.

• If the CPU is not M-class, the prologue and epilogue are modified to save all non-banked registers that are used, so that upon return the user-mode state will not be corrupted. Note that to avoid unnecessary overhead, only general-purpose (integer) registers are saved in this way. If VFP operations are needed, that state must be saved manually.

Specifically, interrupt kinds other than “FIQ” will save all core registers except “lr” and “sp”. “FIQ” interrupts will save r0-r7.

• If the CPU is not M-class, the return instruction is changed to one of the canonical sequences permitted by the architecture for exception return. Where possible the function itself will make the necessary “lr” adjustments so that the “preferred return address” is selected.

Unfortunately the compiler is unable to make this guarantee for an “UNDEF” handler, where the offset from “lr” to the preferred return address depends on the execution state of the code which generated the exception. In this case a sequence equivalent to “movs pc, lr” will be used.

### acquire_capability (acquire_shared_capability, clang::acquire_capability, clang::acquire_shared_capability)¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

Marks a function as acquiring a capability.

### assert_capability (assert_shared_capability, clang::assert_capability, clang::assert_shared_capability)¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

Marks a function that dynamically tests whether a capability is held, and halts the program if it is not held.

### availability¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

The availability attribute can be placed on declarations to describe the lifecycle of that declaration relative to operating system versions. Consider the function declaration for a hypothetical function f:

void f(void) __attribute__((availability(macosx,introduced=10.4,deprecated=10.6,obsoleted=10.7)));


The availability attribute states that f was introduced in Mac OS X 10.4, deprecated in Mac OS X 10.6, and obsoleted in Mac OS X 10.7. This information is used by Clang to determine when it is safe to use f: for example, if Clang is instructed to compile code for Mac OS X 10.5, a call to f() succeeds. If Clang is instructed to compile code for Mac OS X 10.6, the call succeeds but Clang emits a warning specifying that the function is deprecated. Finally, if Clang is instructed to compile code for Mac OS X 10.7, the call fails because f() is no longer available.

The availability attribute is a comma-separated list starting with the platform name and then including clauses specifying important milestones in the declaration’s lifetime (in any order) along with additional information. Those clauses can be:

introduced=version
The first version in which this declaration was introduced.
deprecated=version
The first version in which this declaration was deprecated, meaning that users should migrate away from this API.
obsoleted=version
The first version in which this declaration was obsoleted, meaning that it was removed completely and can no longer be used.
unavailable
This declaration is never available on this platform.
message=string-literal
Additional message text that Clang will provide when emitting a warning or error about use of a deprecated or obsoleted declaration. Useful to direct users to replacement APIs.

Multiple availability attributes can be placed on a declaration, which may correspond to different platforms. Only the availability attribute with the platform corresponding to the target platform will be used; any others will be ignored. If no availability attribute specifies availability for the current target platform, the availability attributes are ignored. Supported platforms are:

ios
Apple’s iOS operating system. The minimum deployment target is specified by the -mios-version-min=*version* or -miphoneos-version-min=*version* command-line arguments.
macosx
Apple’s Mac OS X operating system. The minimum deployment target is specified by the -mmacosx-version-min=*version* command-line argument.

A declaration can be used even when deploying back to a platform version prior to when the declaration was introduced. When this happens, the declaration is weakly linked, as if the weak_import attribute were added to the declaration. A weakly-linked declaration may or may not be present a run-time, and a program can determine whether the declaration is present by checking whether the address of that declaration is non-NULL.

If there are multiple declarations of the same entity, the availability attributes must either match on a per-platform basis or later declarations must not have availability attributes for that platform. For example:

void g(void) __attribute__((availability(macosx,introduced=10.4)));
void g(void) __attribute__((availability(macosx,introduced=10.4))); // okay, matches
void g(void) __attribute__((availability(ios,introduced=4.0))); // okay, adds a new platform
void g(void); // okay, inherits both macosx and ios availability from above.
void g(void) __attribute__((availability(macosx,introduced=10.5))); // error: mismatch


When one method overrides another, the overriding method can be more widely available than the overridden method, e.g.,:

@interface A
- (id)method __attribute__((availability(macosx,introduced=10.4)));
- (id)method2 __attribute__((availability(macosx,introduced=10.4)));
@end

@interface B : A
- (id)method __attribute__((availability(macosx,introduced=10.3))); // okay: method moved into base class later
- (id)method __attribute__((availability(macosx,introduced=10.5))); // error: this method was available via the base class in 10.4
@end


### _Noreturn¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

A function declared as _Noreturn shall not return to its caller. The compiler will generate a diagnostic for a function declared as _Noreturn that appears to be capable of returning to its caller.

### noreturn¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

A function declared as [[noreturn]] shall not return to its caller. The compiler will generate a diagnostic for a function declared as [[noreturn]] that appears to be capable of returning to its caller.

### carries_dependency¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

The carries_dependency attribute specifies dependency propagation into and out of functions.

When specified on a function or Objective-C method, the carries_dependency attribute means that the return value carries a dependency out of the function, so that the implementation need not constrain ordering upon return from that function. Implementations of the function and its caller may choose to preserve dependencies instead of emitting memory ordering instructions such as fences.

Note, this attribute does not change the meaning of the program, but may result in generation of more efficient code.

### enable_if¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Note

Some features of this attribute are experimental. The meaning of multiple enable_if attributes on a single declaration is subject to change in a future version of clang. Also, the ABI is not standardized and the name mangling may change in future versions. To avoid that, use asm labels.

The enable_if attribute can be placed on function declarations to control which overload is selected based on the values of the function’s arguments. When combined with the overloadable attribute, this feature is also available in C.

int isdigit(int c);
int isdigit(int c) __attribute__((enable_if(c <= -1 || c > 255, "chosen when 'c' is out of range"))) __attribute__((unavailable("'c' must have the value of an unsigned char or EOF")));

void foo(char c) {
isdigit(c);
isdigit(10);
isdigit(-10);  // results in a compile-time error.
}


The enable_if attribute takes two arguments, the first is an expression written in terms of the function parameters, the second is a string explaining why this overload candidate could not be selected to be displayed in diagnostics. The expression is part of the function signature for the purposes of determining whether it is a redeclaration (following the rules used when determining whether a C++ template specialization is ODR-equivalent), but is not part of the type.

The enable_if expression is evaluated as if it were the body of a bool-returning constexpr function declared with the arguments of the function it is being applied to, then called with the parameters at the callsite. If the result is false or could not be determined through constant expression evaluation, then this overload will not be chosen and the provided string may be used in a diagnostic if the compile fails as a result.

Because the enable_if expression is an unevaluated context, there are no global state changes, nor the ability to pass information from the enable_if expression to the function body. For example, suppose we want calls to strnlen(strbuf, maxlen) to resolve to strnlen_chk(strbuf, maxlen, size of strbuf) only if the size of strbuf can be determined:

__attribute__((always_inline))
static inline size_t strnlen(const char *s, size_t maxlen)
__attribute__((enable_if(__builtin_object_size(s, 0) != -1))),
"chosen when the buffer size is known but 'maxlen' is not")))
{
return strnlen_chk(s, maxlen, __builtin_object_size(s, 0));
}


Multiple enable_if attributes may be applied to a single declaration. In this case, the enable_if expressions are evaluated from left to right in the following manner. First, the candidates whose enable_if expressions evaluate to false or cannot be evaluated are discarded. If the remaining candidates do not share ODR-equivalent enable_if expressions, the overload resolution is ambiguous. Otherwise, enable_if overload resolution continues with the next enable_if attribute on the candidates that have not been discarded and have remaining enable_if attributes. In this way, we pick the most specific overload out of a number of viable overloads using enable_if.

void f() __attribute__((enable_if(true, "")));  // #1
void f() __attribute__((enable_if(true, ""))) __attribute__((enable_if(true, "")));  // #2

void g(int i, int j) __attribute__((enable_if(i, "")));  // #1
void g(int i, int j) __attribute__((enable_if(j, ""))) __attribute__((enable_if(true)));  // #2


In this example, a call to f() is always resolved to #2, as the first enable_if expression is ODR-equivalent for both declarations, but #1 does not have another enable_if expression to continue evaluating, so the next round of evaluation has only a single candidate. In a call to g(1, 1), the call is ambiguous even though #2 has more enable_if attributes, because the first enable_if expressions are not ODR-equivalent.

Query for this feature with __has_attribute(enable_if).

### flatten (gnu::flatten)¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

The flatten attribute causes calls within the attributed function to be inlined unless it is impossible to do so, for example if the body of the callee is unavailable or if the callee has the noinline attribute.

### format (gnu::format)¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

Clang supports the format attribute, which indicates that the function accepts a printf or scanf-like format string and corresponding arguments or a va_list that contains these arguments.

Clang implements two kinds of checks with this attribute.

1. Clang checks that the function with the format attribute is called with a format string that uses format specifiers that are allowed, and that arguments match the format string. This is the -Wformat warning, it is on by default.

2. Clang checks that the format string argument is a literal string. This is the -Wformat-nonliteral warning, it is off by default.

Clang implements this mostly the same way as GCC, but there is a difference for functions that accept a va_list argument (for example, vprintf). GCC does not emit -Wformat-nonliteral warning for calls to such fuctions. Clang does not warn if the format string comes from a function parameter, where the function is annotated with a compatible attribute, otherwise it warns. For example:

__attribute__((__format__ (__scanf__, 1, 3)))
void foo(const char* s, char *buf, ...) {
va_list ap;
va_start(ap, buf);

vprintf(s, ap); // warning: format string is not a string literal
}


In this case we warn because s contains a format string for a scanf-like function, but it is passed to a printf-like function.

If the attribute is removed, clang still warns, because the format string is not a string literal.

Another example:

__attribute__((__format__ (__printf__, 1, 3)))
void foo(const char* s, char *buf, ...) {
va_list ap;
va_start(ap, buf);

vprintf(s, ap); // warning
}


In this case Clang does not warn because the format string s and the corresponding arguments are annotated. If the arguments are incorrect, the caller of foo will receive a warning.

### noduplicate (clang::noduplicate)¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

The noduplicate attribute can be placed on function declarations to control whether function calls to this function can be duplicated or not as a result of optimizations. This is required for the implementation of functions with certain special requirements, like the OpenCL “barrier” function, that might need to be run concurrently by all the threads that are executing in lockstep on the hardware. For example this attribute applied on the function “nodupfunc” in the code below avoids that:

void nodupfunc() __attribute__((noduplicate));
// Setting it as a C++11 attribute is also valid
// void nodupfunc() [[clang::noduplicate]];
void foo();
void bar();

nodupfunc();
if (a > n) {
foo();
} else {
bar();
}


gets possibly modified by some optimizations into code similar to this:

if (a > n) {
nodupfunc();
foo();
} else {
nodupfunc();
bar();
}


where the call to “nodupfunc” is duplicated and sunk into the two branches of the condition.

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

Use __attribute__((no_sanitize_address)) on a function declaration to specify that address safety instrumentation (e.g. AddressSanitizer) should not be applied to that function.

### no_sanitize_memory¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Use __attribute__((no_sanitize_memory)) on a function declaration to specify that checks for uninitialized memory should not be inserted (e.g. by MemorySanitizer). The function may still be instrumented by the tool to avoid false positives in other places.

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Use __attribute__((no_sanitize_thread)) on a function declaration to specify that checks for data races on plain (non-atomic) memory accesses should not be inserted by ThreadSanitizer. The function is still instrumented by the tool to avoid false positives and provide meaningful stack traces.

### no_split_stack (gnu::no_split_stack)¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

The no_split_stack attribute disables the emission of the split stack preamble for a particular function. It has no effect if -fsplit-stack is not specified.

### objc_method_family¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Many methods in Objective-C have conventional meanings determined by their selectors. It is sometimes useful to be able to mark a method as having a particular conventional meaning despite not having the right selector, or as not having the conventional meaning that its selector would suggest. For these use cases, we provide an attribute to specifically describe the “method family” that a method belongs to.

Usage: __attribute__((objc_method_family(X))), where X is one of none, alloc, copy, init, mutableCopy, or new. This attribute can only be placed at the end of a method declaration:

- (NSString *)initMyStringValue __attribute__((objc_method_family(none)));


Users who do not wish to change the conventional meaning of a method, and who merely want to document its non-standard retain and release semantics, should use the retaining behavior attributes (ns_returns_retained, ns_returns_not_retained, etc).

Query for this feature with __has_attribute(objc_method_family).

### objc_requires_super¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Some Objective-C classes allow a subclass to override a particular method in a parent class but expect that the overriding method also calls the overridden method in the parent class. For these cases, we provide an attribute to designate that a method requires a “call to super” in the overriding method in the subclass.

Usage: __attribute__((objc_requires_super)). This attribute can only be placed at the end of a method declaration:

- (void)foo __attribute__((objc_requires_super));


This attribute can only be applied the method declarations within a class, and not a protocol. Currently this attribute does not enforce any placement of where the call occurs in the overriding method (such as in the case of -dealloc where the call must appear at the end). It checks only that it exists.

Note that on both OS X and iOS that the Foundation framework provides a convenience macro NS_REQUIRES_SUPER that provides syntactic sugar for this attribute:

- (void)foo NS_REQUIRES_SUPER;


This macro is conditionally defined depending on the compiler’s support for this attribute. If the compiler does not support the attribute the macro expands to nothing.

Operationally, when a method has this annotation the compiler will warn if the implementation of an override in a subclass does not call super. For example:

warning: method possibly missing a [super AnnotMeth] call
- (void) AnnotMeth{};
^


### optnone (clang::optnone)¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

The optnone attribute suppresses essentially all optimizations on a function or method, regardless of the optimization level applied to the compilation unit as a whole. This is particularly useful when you need to debug a particular function, but it is infeasible to build the entire application without optimization. Avoiding optimization on the specified function can improve the quality of the debugging information for that function.

This attribute is incompatible with the always_inline attribute.

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Clang provides support for C++ function overloading in C. Function overloading in C is introduced using the overloadable attribute. For example, one might provide several overloaded versions of a tgsin function that invokes the appropriate standard function computing the sine of a value with float, double, or long double precision:

#include <math.h>
float __attribute__((overloadable)) tgsin(float x) { return sinf(x); }
double __attribute__((overloadable)) tgsin(double x) { return sin(x); }
long double __attribute__((overloadable)) tgsin(long double x) { return sinl(x); }


Given these declarations, one can call tgsin with a float value to receive a float result, with a double to receive a double result, etc. Function overloading in C follows the rules of C++ function overloading to pick the best overload given the call arguments, with a few C-specific semantics:

• Conversion from float or double to long double is ranked as a floating-point promotion (per C99) rather than as a floating-point conversion (as in C++).
• A conversion from a pointer of type T* to a pointer of type U* is considered a pointer conversion (with conversion rank) if T and U are compatible types.
• A conversion from type T to a value of type U is permitted if T and U are compatible types. This conversion is given “conversion” rank.

The declaration of overloadable functions is restricted to function declarations and definitions. Most importantly, if any function with a given name is given the overloadable attribute, then all function declarations and definitions with that name (and in that scope) must have the overloadable attribute. This rule even applies to redeclarations of functions whose original declaration had the overloadable attribute, e.g.,

int f(int) __attribute__((overloadable));
float f(float); // error: declaration of "f" must have the "overloadable" attribute

int g(int) { } // error: redeclaration of "g" must also have the "overloadable" attribute


Functions marked overloadable must have prototypes. Therefore, the following code is ill-formed:

int h() __attribute__((overloadable)); // error: h does not have a prototype


However, overloadable functions are allowed to use a ellipsis even if there are no named parameters (as is permitted in C++). This feature is particularly useful when combined with the unavailable attribute:

void honeypot(...) __attribute__((overloadable, unavailable)); // calling me is an error


Functions declared with the overloadable attribute have their names mangled according to the same rules as C++ function names. For example, the three tgsin functions in our motivating example get the mangled names _Z5tgsinf, _Z5tgsind, and _Z5tgsine, respectively. There are two caveats to this use of name mangling:

• Future versions of Clang may change the name mangling of functions overloaded in C, so you should not depend on an specific mangling. To be completely safe, we strongly urge the use of static inline with overloadable functions.
• The overloadable attribute has almost no meaning when used in C++, because names will already be mangled and functions are already overloadable. However, when an overloadable function occurs within an extern "C" linkage specification, it’s name will be mangled in the same way as it would in C.

Query for this feature with __has_extension(attribute_overloadable).

### pcs (gnu::pcs)¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

On ARM targets, this can attribute can be used to select calling conventions, similar to stdcall on x86. Valid parameter values are “aapcs” and “aapcs-vfp”.

### release_capability (release_shared_capability, clang::release_capability, clang::release_shared_capability)¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

Marks a function as releasing a capability.

### try_acquire_capability (try_acquire_shared_capability, clang::try_acquire_capability, clang::try_acquire_shared_capability)¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

Marks a function that attempts to acquire a capability. This function may fail to actually acquire the capability; they accept a Boolean value determining whether acquiring the capability means success (true), or failing to acquire the capability means success (false).

## Variable Attributes¶

### section (gnu::section, __declspec(allocate))¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X X

The section attribute allows you to specify a specific section a global variable or function should be in after translation.

### tls_model (gnu::tls_model)¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X X

The tls_model attribute allows you to specify which thread-local storage model to use. It accepts the following strings:

• global-dynamic
• local-dynamic
• initial-exec
• local-exec

TLS models are mutually exclusive.

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

The __declspec(thread) attribute declares a variable with thread local storage. It is available under the -fms-extensions flag for MSVC compatibility. Documentation for the Visual C++ attribute is available on MSDN.

In Clang, __declspec(thread) is generally equivalent in functionality to the GNU __thread keyword. The variable must not have a destructor and must have a constant initializer, if any. The attribute only applies to variables declared with static storage duration, such as globals, class static data members, and static locals.

## Type Attributes¶

### __single_inhertiance, __multiple_inheritance, __virtual_inheritance¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

This collection of keywords is enabled under -fms-extensions and controls the pointer-to-member representation used on *-*-win32 targets.

The *-*-win32 targets utilize a pointer-to-member representation which varies in size and alignment depending on the definition of the underlying class.

However, this is problematic when a forward declaration is only available and no definition has been made yet. In such cases, Clang is forced to utilize the most general representation that is available to it.

These keywords make it possible to use a pointer-to-member representation other than the most general one regardless of whether or not the definition will ever be present in the current translation unit.

This family of keywords belong between the class-key and class-name:

struct __single_inheritance S;
int S::*i;
struct S {};


This keyword can be applied to class templates but only has an effect when used on full specializations:

template <typename T, typename U> struct __single_inheritance A; // warning: inheritance model ignored on primary template
template <typename T> struct __multiple_inheritance A<T, T>; // warning: inheritance model ignored on partial specialization
template <> struct __single_inheritance A<int, float>;


Note that choosing an inheritance model less general than strictly necessary is an error:

struct __multiple_inheritance S; // error: inheritance model does not match definition
int S::*i;
struct S {};


## Statement Attributes¶

### fallthrough (clang::fallthrough)¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

The clang::fallthrough attribute is used along with the -Wimplicit-fallthrough argument to annotate intentional fall-through between switch labels. It can only be applied to a null statement placed at a point of execution between any statement and the next switch label. It is common to mark these places with a specific comment, but this attribute is meant to replace comments with a more strict annotation, which can be checked by the compiler. This attribute doesn’t change semantics of the code and can be used wherever an intended fall-through occurs. It is designed to mimic control-flow statements like break;, so it can be placed in most places where break; can, but only if there are no statements on the execution path between it and the next switch label.

Here is an example:

// compile with -Wimplicit-fallthrough
switch (n) {
case 22:
case 33:  // no warning: no statements between case labels
f();
case 44:  // warning: unannotated fall-through
g();
[[clang::fallthrough]];
case 55:  // no warning
if (x) {
h();
break;
}
else {
i();
[[clang::fallthrough]];
}
case 66:  // no warning
p();
[[clang::fallthrough]]; // warning: fallthrough annotation does not
//          directly precede case label
q();
case 77:  // warning: unannotated fall-through
r();
}


## Consumed Annotation Checking¶

Clang supports additional attributes for checking basic resource management properties, specifically for unique objects that have a single owning reference. The following attributes are currently supported, although the implementation for these annotations is currently in development and are subject to change.

### callable_when¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Use __attribute__((callable_when(...))) to indicate what states a method may be called in. Valid states are unconsumed, consumed, or unknown. Each argument to this attribute must be a quoted string. E.g.:

__attribute__((callable_when("unconsumed", "unknown")))

### consumable¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Each class that uses any of the typestate annotations must first be marked using the consumable attribute. Failure to do so will result in a warning.

This attribute accepts a single parameter that must be one of the following: unknown, consumed, or unconsumed.

### param_typestate¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

This attribute specifies expectations about function parameters. Calls to an function with annotated parameters will issue a warning if the corresponding argument isn’t in the expected state. The attribute is also used to set the initial state of the parameter when analyzing the function’s body.

### return_typestate¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

The return_typestate attribute can be applied to functions or parameters. When applied to a function the attribute specifies the state of the returned value. The function’s body is checked to ensure that it always returns a value in the specified state. On the caller side, values returned by the annotated function are initialized to the given state.

When applied to a function parameter it modifies the state of an argument after a call to the function returns. The function’s body is checked to ensure that the parameter is in the expected state before returning.

### set_typestate¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Annotate methods that transition an object into a new state with __attribute__((set_typestate(new_state))). The new new state must be unconsumed, consumed, or unknown.

### test_typestate¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Use __attribute__((test_typestate(tested_state))) to indicate that a method returns true if the object is in the specified state..

## Type Safety Checking¶

Clang supports additional attributes to enable checking type safety properties that can’t be enforced by the C type system. Use cases include:

• MPI library implementations, where these attributes enable checking that the buffer type matches the passed MPI_Datatype;
• for HDF5 library there is a similar use case to MPI;
• checking types of variadic functions’ arguments for functions like fcntl() and ioctl().

You can detect support for these attributes with __has_attribute(). For example:

#if defined(__has_attribute)
#  if __has_attribute(argument_with_type_tag) && \
__has_attribute(pointer_with_type_tag) && \
__has_attribute(type_tag_for_datatype)
#    define ATTR_MPI_PWT(buffer_idx, type_idx) __attribute__((pointer_with_type_tag(mpi,buffer_idx,type_idx)))
/* ... other macros ...  */
#  endif
#endif

#if !defined(ATTR_MPI_PWT)
# define ATTR_MPI_PWT(buffer_idx, type_idx)
#endif

int MPI_Send(void *buf, int count, MPI_Datatype datatype /*, other args omitted */)
ATTR_MPI_PWT(1,3);


### argument_with_type_tag¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Use __attribute__((argument_with_type_tag(arg_kind, arg_idx, type_tag_idx))) on a function declaration to specify that the function accepts a type tag that determines the type of some other argument. arg_kind is an identifier that should be used when annotating all applicable type tags.

This attribute is primarily useful for checking arguments of variadic functions (pointer_with_type_tag can be used in most non-variadic cases).

For example:

int fcntl(int fd, int cmd, ...)
__attribute__(( argument_with_type_tag(fcntl,3,2) ));


### pointer_with_type_tag¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Use __attribute__((pointer_with_type_tag(ptr_kind, ptr_idx, type_tag_idx))) on a function declaration to specify that the function accepts a type tag that determines the pointee type of some other pointer argument.

For example:

int MPI_Send(void *buf, int count, MPI_Datatype datatype /*, other args omitted */)
__attribute__(( pointer_with_type_tag(mpi,1,3) ));


### type_tag_for_datatype¶

Supported Syntaxes
GNU C++11 __declspec Keyword
X

Clang supports annotating type tags of two forms.

• Type tag that is an expression containing a reference to some declared identifier. Use __attribute__((type_tag_for_datatype(kind, type))) on a declaration with that identifier:

extern struct mpi_datatype mpi_datatype_int
__attribute__(( type_tag_for_datatype(mpi,int) ));
#define MPI_INT ((MPI_Datatype) &mpi_datatype_int)

• Type tag that is an integral literal. Introduce a static const variable with a corresponding initializer value and attach __attribute__((type_tag_for_datatype(kind, type))) on that declaration, for example:

#define MPI_INT ((MPI_Datatype) 42)
static const MPI_Datatype mpi_datatype_int
__attribute__(( type_tag_for_datatype(mpi,int) )) = 42


The attribute also accepts an optional third argument that determines how the expression is compared to the type tag. There are two supported flags:

• layout_compatible will cause types to be compared according to layout-compatibility rules (C++11 [class.mem] p 17, 18). This is implemented to support annotating types like MPI_DOUBLE_INT.

For example:

/* In mpi.h */
struct internal_mpi_double_int { double d; int i; };
extern struct mpi_datatype mpi_datatype_double_int
__attribute__(( type_tag_for_datatype(mpi, struct internal_mpi_double_int, layout_compatible) ));

#define MPI_DOUBLE_INT ((MPI_Datatype) &mpi_datatype_double_int)

/* In user code */
struct my_pair { double a; int b; };
struct my_pair *buffer;
MPI_Send(buffer, 1, MPI_DOUBLE_INT /*, ...  */); // no warning

struct my_int_pair { int a; int b; }
struct my_int_pair *buffer2;
MPI_Send(buffer2, 1, MPI_DOUBLE_INT /*, ...  */); // warning: actual buffer element
// type 'struct my_int_pair'
// doesn't match specified MPI_Datatype

• must_be_null specifies that the expression should be a null pointer constant, for example:

/* In mpi.h */
extern struct mpi_datatype mpi_datatype_null
__attribute__(( type_tag_for_datatype(mpi, void, must_be_null) ));

#define MPI_DATATYPE_NULL ((MPI_Datatype) &mpi_datatype_null)

/* In user code */
MPI_Send(buffer, 1, MPI_DATATYPE_NULL /*, ...  */); // warning: MPI_DATATYPE_NULL
// was specified but buffer
// is not a null pointer