The check flags insertions to an STL-style container done by calling the push_back, push, or push_front methods with an explicitly-constructed temporary of the container element type. In this case, the corresponding emplace equivalent methods result in less verbose and potentially more efficient code. Right now the check doesn’t support insert. It also doesn’t support insert functions for associative containers because replacing insert with emplace may result in speed regression, but it might get support with some addition flag in the future.

The ContainersWithPushBack, ContainersWithPush, and ContainersWithPushFront options are used to specify the container types that support the push_back, push, and push_front operations respectively. The default values for these options are as follows:

This check also reports when an emplace-like method is improperly used, for example using emplace_back while also calling a constructor. This creates a temporary that requires at best a move and at worst a copy. Almost all emplace-like functions in the STL are covered by this, with try_emplace on std::map and std::unordered_map being the exception as it behaves slightly differently than all the others. More containers can be added with the EmplacyFunctions option, so long as the container defines a value_type type, and the emplace-like functions construct a value_type object.


std::vector<MyClass> v;
v.push_back(MyClass(21, 37));
v.emplace_back(MyClass(21, 37));

std::vector<std::pair<int, int>> w;

w.push_back(std::pair<int, int>(21, 37));
w.push_back(std::make_pair(21L, 37L));
w.emplace_back(std::make_pair(21L, 37L));


std::vector<MyClass> v;
v.emplace_back(21, 37);
v.emplace_back(21, 37);

std::vector<std::pair<int, int>> w;
w.emplace_back(21, 37);
w.emplace_back(21L, 37L);
w.emplace_back(21L, 37L);

By default, the check is able to remove unnecessary std::make_pair and std::make_tuple calls from push_back calls on containers of std::pair and std::tuple. Custom tuple-like types can be modified by the TupleTypes option; custom make functions can be modified by the TupleMakeFunctions option.

The other situation is when we pass arguments that will be converted to a type inside a container.


std::vector<boost::optional<std::string> > v;


std::vector<boost::optional<std::string> > v;

In some cases the transformation would be valid, but the code wouldn’t be exception safe. In this case the calls of push_back won’t be replaced.

std::vector<std::unique_ptr<int>> v;
v.push_back(std::unique_ptr<int>(new int(0)));
auto *ptr = new int(1);

This is because replacing it with emplace_back could cause a leak of this pointer if emplace_back would throw exception before emplacement (e.g. not enough memory to add a new element).

For more info read item 42 - “Consider emplacement instead of insertion.” of Scott Meyers “Effective Modern C++”.

The default smart pointers that are considered are std::unique_ptr, std::shared_ptr, std::auto_ptr. To specify other smart pointers or other classes use the SmartPointers option.

Check also doesn’t fire if any argument of the constructor call would be:

  • a bit-field (bit-fields can’t bind to rvalue/universal reference)

  • a new expression (to avoid leak)

  • if the argument would be converted via derived-to-base cast.

This check requires C++11 or higher to run.



Semicolon-separated list of class names of custom containers that support push_back.


Semicolon-separated list of class names of custom containers that support push.


Semicolon-separated list of class names of custom containers that support push_front.


When true, the check will ignore implicitly constructed arguments of push_back, e.g.

std::vector<std::string> v;
v.push_back("a"); // Ignored when IgnoreImplicitConstructors is `true`.

Default is false.


Semicolon-separated list of class names of custom smart pointers.


Semicolon-separated list of std::tuple-like class names.


Semicolon-separated list of std::make_tuple-like function names. Those function calls will be removed from push_back calls and turned into emplace_back.


Semicolon-separated list of containers without their template parameters and some emplace-like method of the container. Example: vector::emplace_back. Those methods will be checked for improper use and the check will report when a temporary is unnecessarily created.


std::vector<MyTuple<int, bool, char>> x;
x.push_back(MakeMyTuple(1, false, 'x'));
x.emplace_back(MakeMyTuple(1, false, 'x'));

transforms to:

std::vector<MyTuple<int, bool, char>> x;
x.emplace_back(1, false, 'x');
x.emplace_back(1, false, 'x');

when TupleTypes is set to MyTuple, TupleMakeFunctions is set to MakeMyTuple, and EmplacyFunctions is set to vector::emplace_back.